The duke of Buckingham haunts Salisbury

The King’s House. (Photograph by Richard Sutcliffe via Geograph)

The duke of Buckingham in the Cathedral Close

For Halloween, the Salisbury Journal told his readers a ‘Ghostly tale of Henry, Duke of Buckingham’. It seems that the ghost of Henry Stafford is haunting the Salisbury Museum in the Cathedral Close, which used to be the Diocesan Training College. The college was established in 1841 to train female teachers for Church of England schools in the diocese of Salisbury.

For his involvement in the 1483 rebellion against King Richard III, Henry Stafford, second duke of Buckingham was beheaded in the Market Square in Salisbury on 2 Nov. 1483.

According to this “Ghostly Tale”, to show the king that the deed was done, Buckingham’s head was conveyed on a platter to the Cathedral Close, where Richard was staying. There things got a bit out of hand and the head rolled off the platter onto the floorboards, leaving a blood stain. In the heat of the moment nobody could be bothered to clean up quickly and the stain became permanent.

Many years later, new buildings were added to the college and the floorboards were to be reused on the landing of a staircase. To hide the unsightly stains, the workmen used them upside down. However, their good intentions did not work out. The stains somehow seeped upwards and could be seen on the top.  

The building is intriguingly called the ‘King’s House”. Though it goes back to the 13th century, its name does not refer to Richard III, but rather to James I, who visited in the 17th century.

The duke of Buckingham in the department store

However, the museum is not the only place in Salisbury said to be haunted by Henry Stafford. I remember reading some years ago, that his ghost was said to frequent the local Debenhams. The shop was on the site of the Blue Boar Inn, where the duke of Buckingham spent his last hours before being executed just outside in the Market Place.

His ghost is said to have been seen in the sportswear department and the ladies changing room. It seems Stafford’s ghost had a thing for the ladies, a women’s college and ladies changing rooms. Another sighting was in the attic where he frightened a telephone engineer.

Some years ago a telephone engineer was working alone in the attic when he felt a cold hand grasp his shoulder, he fled the attic vowing never to return, someone else had to go back to retrieve his tools. Debenhams is Salisbury closed down in 2020.

Where was the duke of Buckingham buried?

The reason for the duke of Buckingham haunting the site is that in 1838, during building work, the workmen found a skeleton, but the head and the right arm were missing. These were quickly declared to be the remains of Henry Stafford, who for reasons unknown would have been buried beneath the inn. An oak box in the museum claims to have been carved out of the wood of the scaffold and was buried together with the head- and armless skeleton.

This identification is highly doubtful though, as it is known that Richard III showed more respect to the executed and arranged for them to be buried in the Grey Friars in Salisbury.   To complicate matters further there is also a tomb in the church of Britford just outside of Salisbury said to be that of Stafford. The coffin is too short, because the head is on the chest of the man who was buried there. If this is the case, at least it shows that the head was not left rolling around in the building in the Cathedral Close. However, the style of the tomb belongs to an earlier period than 1483, though Stafford might have been buried in an older tomb chest. Possibly the tomb was removed from the Grey Friars after the Dissolution and taken to Britford.

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The girl (not) from next door and her refound fiancé

Some time ago, I came on social media across the painting of a woman.  The information said that this was a portrait of Elisabeth Bellinghausen.  However, it was Elisabeth’s surname which had me intrigued.

The village next to the one where I grew up is called Bellinghausen.  Bellinghausen is also a frequent surname in the area.  Naturally, I wondered whether this lady had anything to do with “our” Bellinghausen, given that it is only approx. 35 km to the south-east of Cologne. On a clear day, you can see Cologne Cathedral in the distance. So it is not that far-fetched to think that someone from the village of Bellinghausen had moved to Cologne, where the family would become very influential.

I had wanted to find out more about her for quite some time. And then the other day, there were some more exciting news about her portrait.

The portrait is by Bartholomäus (or abbreviated Barthel) Bruyn the elder (1493–1555), who was mainly active in Cologne. He was a famous painter of altar panels, but also for his portraits of the upper echelons of his city. Many of them are in the form diptychs, ie. two panels, each with the portrait of one of a couple, engaged or married, who are facing each other.  The painting of Elisabeth Bellinghausen is one half of such a diptych.

It was probably commissioned on the occasion of her engagement to Jakob Omphal(ius). At an auction in London in 1896 the two halves of the diptych became separated. [i]

Elisabeth’s half ended up in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, who gave it as a long-term loan to the Mauritshuis in Den Haag, NL. She could be identified, because on the back of her painting is the coat of arms of her father, Peter Bellinghausen. However, nobody knew where the other half of the diptych, a portrait of Jakob, was or what had happened to it. That was the accepted version until just a few days ago.

The girl (not) from next door and her refound fiancé

Barthel Bruyn, Jakob Omphal and Elisabeth Bellinghausen (Wikimedia Commons)

Then I saw an exciting Twitter thread about the acquisition of his portrait by the Mauritshuis.[ii]  It had been traced by a combination of detective work and German – Dutch collaboration.

The mystery of the missing fiancé had bugged the curator at the Mauritshuis, Ariane van Suchtelen, for a long time and she had started looking into it. She found a copy of the catalogue of the London auction where they were split up. His half had been misattributed as being by the Dutch painter Jan Gossaert (c. 1478–1532). It was sold to an English arts dealer and had last been auctioned in 1955, but after that the trail went cold. That was until May 2019, when a small Paris auction house offered it as a “portrait of an unknown man”. The estimated price was €8,000-12,000, but it sold for €63,500.

It was bought by a Geneva gallery, without them knowing who the artist or the man in the painting were. When they showed it at the European Fine Art Fair in Maastricht, the art curator of a German museum spotted it and notified the Rijksmuseum. And the rest is history: it was identified as the portrait the Mauritshuis had been seeking for so long. Mauritshuis succeeded in buying Jakob’s portrait for €250,000 with the help of the Rembrandt Association, the Dutch lottery and a private donor. Elisabeth and her long-lost fiancé were reunited.

As the original frames had been lost, both portraits got new ones, based on examples of those used by Bruyn. Now they look again like the diptych they were meant to be. They will be displayed together until 4 October. Then Jakob’s portrait will get extensive conservation treatment, as Elisabeth’s had done earlier, before they will be displayed together again at the Mauritshuis.

By the time they will eventually be reunited, international travel will hopefully be possible again and then a trip to Den Haag and its museum is definitely a “must go” destination.

Elisabeth and Jakob married in 1539, but these portraits were painted before their wedding. In her picture, her braids can be seen, which is a sign for a woman not being married. The braids of a married woman were worn under her cap.[iii]

Barthel Bruyn, Elisabeth Bellinghausen and the painting from the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum (both Wikimedia Commons)

When visiting the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig, I saw the diptych of another engaged couple by Bruyn and was struck by the similarities between the two women. The posture of both women is identical. Both hold a sprig of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara) in their right hand, a popular attribute of unmarried couples in Cologne portraits of the time. Their left hands are lying on a surface, showing off their engagement rings.

Remarkable is that both are wearing the same belt. It can also be found in other Bruyn portraits.  Was this belt the latest fashion accessory of its time, or did it belong to the painter to be displayed where appropriate?[iv] Their caps are also very similar, but that is as far as the similarities go. The rest of their outfits are different, and the faces clearly depict two individuals.

Jakob is depicted wearing a lavish fur collar, which he holds with his left hand. In his right hand, which rests on the same surface as Elisabeth’s left hand, he is holding a letter. This probably shows him as one of the leading intellectuals of his time, who would in time become chancellor to the archbishop of Cologne.

A few words of background information on the painter.[v] Bruyn was born in 1493, though it is not sure where, probably somewhere on the Lower Rhine, maybe in Wesel, but Haarlem has also been suggested.  In 1505, he entered the workshop of Jan Joest at the St Nikolai Church in Kalkar. Here he met Joos van Cleve (c.1480/1485–1540) and they became close friends. After 1512, Bruyn came to Cologne, where he remained for the rest of his life and became very successful.  By 1533 he was able to buy a large house and opened his own workshop.  He was active in civic affairs and became a member of upper-middle-class Cologne society.  He married Agnes, a daughter of his teacher Jan Joest, and they had five children.

Bruyn painted altar panels, but today is probably better known for his portraits, mostly of influential citizens of the city.  He is credited with founding a tradition of portrait painting in Cologne, which continued till the 17th century.

Bruyn died in April 1555 and two of his sons, Arnt and Bartholomäus the Younger, continued the workshop.  Arnt’s son, another Bartholomäus, was also a portrait painter, who worked for the duke of Nancy.  Another grandson, Gottfried von Wedig, eventually introduced the painting of still lives to Cologne.

And what about any relation to the village of Bellinghausen? The village probably has its origins in a single farm around which a village developed, in the Merovingian period, c. 500-800.[vi] Since the reorganisation of local governments in 1969, Bellinghausen has been part of Königswinter. The local occurrence of Bellinghausen as a surname clearly originates from this village, but to my great disappointment, there is no clear evidence that there was any connection with Elisabeth’s family. However, the story of the re-united couple is exciting enough.


[i] Boffey, D. (2 July 2020), ‘Renaissance couple: unhinged duo reunited after 125 years apart’, The Guardian. URL: [last accessed 13 July 2020];

Mauritshuis (30 June 2020), ‘Mauritshuis acquires Portrait of Jakob Omphalius by Batholomäus Bruyn’. URL: [last accessed 13 July 2020];

Ribbens, A. (29 June 2020), ‘Na ruim een eeuw hangen Elisabeth en Jakob weer naast elkaar‘, NRC. URL: [last accessed 13 July 2020]

[ii] Rembrandt’s Room (29 June 2020), ‘Acquisition thread’, Twitter. URL:

[iii] Mauritshuis, ‘Bartolomäus Bruyn – Discover the portraits’. URL: [last accessed 13 July 2020]

[iv] Das große Lexikon der Malerei. Zweiburgen Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 1982, p.104

[v] Caswell, J.M. (2003), ‘Bruyn family [Bruen; Bruin; Bruns]’, Grove Art Online [last accessed online 12 Jan. 2019]

Löw, A., ‘Familie Bruyn, Malerfamilie’, Portal Rheinische Geschichte.  URL: [last accessed 13 Jan. 2019];

Das große Lexikon der Malerei. Zweiburgen Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 1982, pp.98, 100-101, 103,104

[vi] Schyma, A. (1992), Stadt Königswinter.  Denkmaltopographie Bundesrepublik Deutschland / Denkmäler im Rheinland, Vol. 23, No. 5. Rheinland-Verlag, Köln, p.65

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Anglo-Saxon Hertford

Anglo-Saxon Hertford 

a bustling town and its mint

Today, Hertford has the atmosphere of a quiet country town rather than that of a bustling and prosperous trading centre.  However, in its Anglo-Saxon days that was completely different.

It all started when – according to Anglo-Saxon Chronicle – Edward the Elder (reigned 899 to 924) established a burh (a fortification) on the north side of the River Lea, “betwixt the Memer, and the Benwic, and the Lea” [i] in 912 (though there is some controversy about the year, it might have been 911 or 913 as well).  The following year, his forces built another one on the southern side.

Edward the Elder (Wikimedia Commons)

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Welcome to Bad Godesberg

Welcome to Bad Godesberg

‘Encounter‘ by Eva de Maizière

Welcome to Bad Godesberg

Eva de Maizière, ‘Encounter’, 1978

This post has nothing to do with history but concerns an artwork which speaks to me.  I would like to introduce you to a sculpture in Bad Godesberg, a southern suburb of Bonn.  Often remembered for its abundance of embassies during the time when Bonn was the capital of West Germany.  The “Bad” (spa) refers to its older history as a place with a spring with health benefits. Continue reading

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part III

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire

Part III:  A look around town

This is the last of three parts dealing with Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire.

St Peter’s Church from Castle Street

St Peter’s Church

I made my way back to the High Street along Castle Street, the original access route to the castle.  It used to end at the South Gate, the main entrance to the castle.  However, both the gate and the moat in that part were knocked down to make place for the railway in the 19th century.

I walked past Berkhamsted School to St Peter’s Church, at the corner of Castle Street and the High Street. Continue reading

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part II

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire

Part II:  Berkhamsted Castle

This is the second of three parts dealing with Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire.

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part II

Castle Ruins

When I visited Berkhamsted, rather than the town itself, my first stop were the ruins of the castle. As the reason for my visit was to pay my respects to Cecily Neville, the mother of Richard III, it was only polite to go to where she had resided.

The castle is located a bit away from the town, on higher ground, instead of the marshy river area.  Berkhamsted was an important strategic location, as it was on one of the main routes between London and the Midlands, approx. 30 miles (= 48 km) from the capital.

Don’t be confused by today’s entrance to the castle area.  You will pass the Keeper’s House, but this is only from the 19th century. Continue reading

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part I

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire

Part I:  Historical background & References

This is the first of three parts dealing with Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire. The posts are based on a talk I gave at the recent Ricardian convention at Albury, where members of the Richard III Society from Australia and New Zealand met.

(This post was updated 21 Dec. 2018)

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part I

Grand Union Canal in Berkhamsted

A few years ago, while visiting the UK, I decided to go to Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, where the mother of Richard III, Cecily Neville, duchess of York, had resided for a long period.

(Great) Berkhamsted is a town in western Hertfordshire.  Not to be confused with Little Berkhamsted, a village, also in Hertfordshire, approx. 6 km east of Hatfield.  When we lived in central Hertfordshire for five years in the 1990s, Little Berkhamsted was much closer to home and easily visited.  However, a trip to the other Berkhamsted so far west had been in the too hard basket at that time!

It took the distance from Australia to put things into perspective.  So, when, many years later, I was going to drive from St Albans to Oxford, it was the perfect opportunity to make up for my earlier negligence.  In anticipation of my trip, I told some friends that I would be going to meet up with Cecily Neville for a coffee.

Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire, Part I

Cecily Neville

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